Energy intake ( calories) should be in balance with energy expenditure. The recommended daily caloric intake for a active sedentary men with a body weight of 60 kg is 2320Kcal and for a sedentary active female with a body weight of 55kg is 1900Kcal. In India 70-80 % of total dietary calories are derived from carbohydrates present in plant foods such as cereals, millets and pulses. So eat whole grain, high fibre cereals and reduce or eliminate refined or processed carbohydrates.
Choose from a variety of low – fat sources of protein including low – fat dairy products, lean meat, chicken without skin, egg white, small fishes, pulses, unsalted nuts seeds and soy products.
Reducing the amount of total fat intake to less than 30 % of total energy intake helps to prevent unhealthy weight gain also reducing the risk of developing NCDs. Reducing the intake of saturated fats (palm oil, ghee, butter etc) and trans fats (vanaspathi). Use unsaturated fats (Olive oil, canola oil, rice bran oil, sunflower oil etc) instead of saturated fats.
Keeping salt intake to less than 5 g / day (equivalent to sodium intake of less than 2g / day) helps to prevent prevent hypertension and reduces the risk of heart diseases, kidney diseases and stroke. Salt should be iodized.
Restrict or eliminate Junk food – Foods that contain refined flour, solid fats or trans fat, added sugars and are high in sodium. Also carbonated and other sugar added drinks that are high in calories and contain few or no nutrients. When cutting back on unhealthy foods in your diet, its important to replace them with healthy alternatives (Instead of fried chicken use grilled chicken or ice cream (1/2 cup – 200kcal) replaced with mixed fruit salad (120Kcal) or egg ommelette (1no – 160 Kcal) with boiled egg (1 no – 90 Kcal).
Drink plenty of water – It’s commonly recommended that 6 – 8 glasses per day. It helps to prevent constipation, improve brain function, decrease the risk of kidney stone formation and aid weight loss. A minimum 30 – 45 minutes brisk walk / physical activity of moderate intensity provides many health benefits.
Obesity is a common health issue that is defined by abnormal accumulation of body fat usually 20% or more over an individuals ideal body weight. A body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher is an indicator of obesity. The common specific causes of obesity are genetics, hypothyroidism, childhood obesity, PCOD, Cushing syndrome, environmental and psychological factors, faulty dietary habits and life style changes. It is usually diagnosed on the basis of calculation of BMI (18.5 – 23.5 normal) and waist hip ratio.
The major physical health problems associated with obesity are type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, gall bladder diseases, sleep apnoea, PCOD, osteoarthritis, certain cancers (breast, colon ) stroke, fatty liver and infertility. Some of which can be life threatening if not treated.
There has been a dramatic increase in obesity and in obesity – related disease in the last 2-3 decades. About 30-50% of adult Indians either overweight or obese. To prevent obesity and weight gain by making healthier lifestyle choices. There is no single regimen for weight reduction; it has to be individualized.Slow and steady reduction in body weight is advisable. Severe fasting may lead to health hazards. Achieve energy balance and appropriate weight for height. Eat small meals regularly at frequent intervals. Eat well by choosing nutritious foods like fruits, vegetables, whole- grains, low fat dairy products and lean protein and nuts. Cut down sugar, fatty foods, salt, refined foods, soft drinks, carbonated drinks and alcohol. Eat complex CHO, high fibre and high protein rich diets. Limit fat intake and shift from saturated to unsaturated fats. Avoid trans – fatty rich foods (Vanaspathi, bakery products). Encourage regular physical activity ( 30 -60 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week). Focus on reducing daily stress. Drinking enough water (2 – 2.5 litre / day) is essential for burning off fat from food and drink as well as stored fat.
Bariatric surgery is done to help you lose excess weight and reduce your risk of potentially life – threatening weight – related health problems including type 2 diabetes, HTN, stroke, sleep apnoea, heart disease, cancer etc. It could be an option for if :Your BMI is 40 or higher. Your BMI is 35 – 39.9 and you have a serious weight related health problems such as type 2 DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia etc.
Semisolid diet consists of food of a thick pudding like consistency which may be blended at home itself.
Spices might irritate the stomach so it would be better to avoid them completely.
From this stage onwards you should take a high protein diet (minimum 70g / day) such as boiled egg whites, low fat curd/ yogurt, skimmed milk, soybean,nuts, chicken, fish etc. Second stage also continued for 3 weeks.Stage 3 : Solid diet
At this stage, the post – op diet is similar to your pre- surgical diet. Certain items off limits: fried foods, sugars, processed foods, dry fruits, whole dairy products, refined flour based items, white rice, red meat, shell fish etc.
Overtime you can add some of the excluded items above but always small portions.
Your focus should remain on lean protein, complex CHOes, and healthy fats and portion control is still important.
Eat slowly, chew thoroughly, and avoid drinking in between meals.
Drink plenty of oral fluids (2 – 2. 5 l / day) and be physically active each day (30 – 45 minutes physical activity at least 5 days a week).